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Timeline of 10 Guru of Sikhism – Sikh History, Facts & Ideology

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Timeline of 10 Guru of Sikhism – Sikh History, Facts & Ideology

In India a Sikhism is a religion of Sikh community who majorly belongs to Punjab and their mother tongue is Punjabi. The sharing the learning of 10 Guru of Sikhism is important to know about their sacrifices made for the protection of Sikhism. All Guru as per timeline had fought against the negativity to protect Sikhism and also make them a selfless human being.

Timeline of 10 Guru of Sikhism

Below Listing About 10 Guru of Sikhism – History, Timeline, Facts and Ideology

1 Guru Nanak Dev Ji (1469-1539)

Guru Nanak

The first Sikh Guru is Guru Nanak Devji. He was born in Talwandi, Pakistan in 15th April, 1469, and that place is known as Nankana Sahib in Pakistan. Guru Nanak Dev’s father name is Mehta Kalyan Chand or Kaluji and mother name is Mata Tripta ji. He was married to Mata Sulkhani Ji and was having kids named Baba Sri Chand Ji and Baba Lakshni Das ji.

Guru Nanak was born in the Hindu family and faced the rejection in the notion of division. But he didn’t believe in the religion of being Hindu or Muslim instead he believed in humanity. They taught people that there is one God for all and the believe of everyone in God is the only truth. He said there is one creator of world and we are dividing it in the religion. He explained the fact of brotherhood and sisterhood in the community which is mixed of all religions.

Guru Nanak Dev attained the enlightened the reality of life, nature realistic, divinity & existence of human life at age of 30. When he immersed in the river for the meditation for three days then he archived the powerful perception. He believed and spread the word of divinity to all people around him. spreader awareness of human existence includes the love, devotion, truth and peace with every person. He also launched the Langar practise in his timeline to remove the differences.

Later Guru Nanak delineate his perception of life in “Japji Sahib” to picturize the meaning of humanity and their existence to enlightened people. “Japji Sahib” was the initial step and the foundation of Sikh spiritual tradition. He travelled worldwide to spread his words of humanity to every person. Lately he left his body in Kartapur Ravi, Pakistan on 22nd September 1539. He lived for 70 years.

2. Guru Angad Dev Ji (1504-1552)

Guru Angad Dev Ji

In the grand tapestry of Sikhism’s evolution, Guru Angad Dev Ji, the second luminary after Guru Nanak, emerges as a pivotal figure, orchestrating a symphony of change from 1504 to 1552. A devotee of Guru Nanak’s spiritual ethos, born Lehna on March 31, 1504, Guru Angad weaved intricate threads into the fabric of Sikh philosophy, leaving an indelible mark.

His intellectual tapestry includes the refinement and orchestration of the Gurmukhi script. Recognizing the imperativeness of a standardized script to immortalize the teachings of the Gurus, Guru Angad meticulously crafted and streamlined the Gurmukhi script. Today, this script adorns the pages of Punjabi and finds its sanctity preserved in the Guru Granth Sahib, the sanctified tome of Sikhism.

Guru Angad’s sagacity extended beyond linguistic harmonization; it embraced the corporeal realm. He championed the symbiotic relationship between physical well-being and spiritual elevation. In advocating for a daily regimen that amalgamated exercise and health-centric pursuits, Guru Angad championed the Sikh belief that the trinity of body, mind, and spirit coalesce into a singular entity.

In the realm of enlightenment through knowledge, Guru Angad carved a niche by establishing educational bastions. Recognizing knowledge as the alchemist’s touchstone, he laid the foundation for educational institutions that transcended mere literacy, imparting moral and spiritual values. This commitment resonates in the concept of ‘Guru ka Langar,’ where sustenance metamorphoses into nourishment for the mind and spirit through education.

The epoch of Guru Angad Dev Ji fortified the bedrock of Sikhism during its nascent phase. His symphony of linguistic congruence, physical vitality, and educational enlightenment reverberates through the corridors of Sikh identity. His legacy, a beacon of human service and enlightenment, endured beyond his physical departure on March 29, 1552, casting a perpetual glow on the Sikh narrative.

3. Guru Amar Das Ji (1479-1574)

Guru Amar Das Ji

In the expansive chronicles of Sikhism, the reign of Guru Amar Das Ji, the third luminary from 1479 to 1574, stands as a testament to profound social reform and the relentless pursuit of human equality.

Born on May 5, 1479, Guru Amar Das Ji seamlessly wove the teachings of his predecessors, Guru Nanak and Guru Angad, into the tapestry of Sikhism. Among his transformative endeavors, the creation of the Manji system looms large. This innovative structure strategically appointed individuals to disseminate the spiritual tenets of Sikhism across diverse locales. The Manji system emerged as a linchpin in organizing the burgeoning Sikh community, providing them with spiritual guidance.

Yet, Guru Amar Das Ji’s crusade for social equality took center stage. Vigorously challenging entrenched social hierarchies and the caste system, he championed the innate equality of every individual. The Pangat system, a brainchild of Guru Amar Das Ji, shattered barriers by bringing people of all backgrounds together for communal meals, transcending caste and societal divisions. This practice aimed to fortify social bonds, fostering equality and unity among Sikhs.

At the heart of Guru Amar Das Ji’s teachings resided the profound mantra, “Manas ki jaat sabhe eke pehchaanbo,” translating to “Recognize all mankind as one.” This ethos encapsulated his vision of a society where individuals were esteemed for their actions and devotion rather than their societal status.

On September 1, 1574, Guru Amar Das Ji transitioned from mortal existence, leaving behind a legacy of profound social reform, spiritual enlightenment, and an unswerving commitment to equality. His teachings laid the groundwork for successive Gurus, propelling the ongoing mission to construct an equitable and just society within the Sikh community. The three foundational tenets of Sikhism—equality, humility, and the rejection of social prejudices—bear the indelible imprint of Guru Amar Das Ji’s transformative influence.

4. Guru Ram Das Ji (1534-1581)

Guru Ram Das Ji

Guru Ram Das Ji, the fourth luminary in the tapestry of Sikhism, etched an enduring legacy distinguished by profound contributions to spirituality, culture, and communal well-being. From his ascent to the spiritual throne in 1534 until his departure in 1581, Guru Ram Das Ji’s life was a testament to humility, selfless service, and unwavering dedication to Sikh ideals. Born as Bhai Jetha in Lahore on September 24, 1534, Guru Ram Das Ji personified humility and selfless service throughout his life. His mission centered on fortifying the spiritual allure of Sikhism, adhering faithfully to the legacy of his predecessors.

One of his seminal achievements was the founding of the city of Amritsar, where his vision crystallized into the planning and construction of the Golden Temple, also known as the Harmandir Sahib. Amritsar, meaning “Pool of Nectar,” emerged as a beacon in Sikh spirituality and culture, embodying principles of equality, service, and devotion. Guru Ram Das Ji instituted the Anand Karaj marriage ceremony, transforming it into a sacred union symbolizing Sikh ideals of love, equality, and commitment. This initiative aimed to elevate family life to a ritual imbued with sacred and profound spirituality.

His teachings, rooted in humility, devotion, and selfless service, emphasized the paramount importance of “Seva,” or selfless service, as a path to true spirituality. This principle encapsulates the essence of serving others without expecting reciprocation. The Guru’s poems in the Guru Granth Sahib showcase his profound spiritual insight and unwavering devotion to the Almighty. His hymns, particularly in the Ragas of Raag Sorath and Raag Ramkali, emphasize the transformative power of love and devotion in forging a connection with the Divine, resonating with congregations.

On September 1, 1581, Guru Ram Das Ji transitioned from mortal existence, leaving behind a legacy of profound spirituality, service, and humility. His indelible impact reverberates in the architectural marvel of Amritsar and the sanctity of Anand Karaj. Guru Ram Das Ji’s legacy continues to serve as an eternal source of inspiration and guidance for Sikhs on their spiritual journey.

5. Guru Arjan Dev Ji (1563-1606)

Guru Arjan Dev Ji

During his reign from 1563 to 1606, Guru Arjan Dev Ji—the fifth great figure in Sikhism—had a significant impact on the spiritual and cultural terrain of the faith. His notable contributions to Sikh scripture, architecture, and steadfast support of religious tolerance define his legacy. Guru Arjan Dev Ji was born on April 15, 1563, as the youngest son of Guru Ram Das Ji. He firmly adhered to the spiritual teachings of his ancestors, which placed a strong emphasis on love, humility, and devotion to the Almighty. After taking on the Guruship in 1581, he started revolutionary endeavors that would influence the development of Sikhism.

His compilation of the Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikhism’s holy book, was the greatest of his achievements. Sensing the necessity of a single scripture, Guru Arjan Dev Ji collected hymns from past Gurus and saints with great care. Offering philosophical and spiritual guidance, the Guru Granth Sahib became a beacon of light for the Sikh community, promoting harmony and historical continuity.

Not only did Guru Arjan Dev Ji write books, but he also built the Golden Temple in Amritsar, which is also called Harmandir Sahib. The Amrit Sarovar served as a visual reminder of the values of devotion and purity, and this hallowed structure represented the spiritual equality of people from all backgrounds and faiths. But Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s martyrdom serves as evidence of his unwavering commitment to religious tolerance and defiance of political pressure. Emperor Jahangir’s order from 1606, on May 30, 1606, resulted in the Guru’s persecution and execution in Lahore. His unwavering refusal to back down from religious liberty principles was a turning point in Sikh history.

For Sikhs, the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji is a source of great significance, signifying their unwavering dedication to justice, liberty, and the preservation of religious freedom. His selflessness continues to serve as evidence of the Sikh people’s tenacity in the face of injustice and persecution.

6. Guru Hargobind Ji (1595-1644)

Guru Hargobind Ji

The sixth great saint of Sikhism, Guru Hargobind Ji, oversaw the Sikh community from 1595 until 1644, profoundly influencing its course. Rather than concentrating only on spiritual objectives, his leadership style was characterized by its assertiveness and consideration of both temporal and spiritual factors.

On June 19, 1595, Guru Hargobind Ji was born. Following the martyrdom of his father, Guru Arjan Dev Ji, he took up the role of Guru. Realizing that self-defense was essential in the face of increasing persecution, he put forth the concept of militarization to the Sikh community. Guru Hargobind Ji thought that by using this strategy, Sikhs could safeguard their safety from outside threats and preserve their spiritual foundation.

The Akal Takht, also referred to as the Throne of the Timeless One, is a physical representation of this revolutionary change and is situated in Amritsar close to the Harmandir Sahib. The Akal Takht was converted by the Sikh community into a venue for resolving conflicts and the seat of temporal authority, signifying the dual nature of Sikh leadership—combining the responsibility to uphold the well-being of the community with spiritual guidance.

With the swords of Piri and Miri, Guru Hargobind Ji personified the dual nature of power. Whereas Miri denoted temporal or political power, Piri stood for spiritual authority. This unusual clothing represented the Guru’s dedication to upholding a harmonious balance between the material and spiritual aspects of life.

Guru Hargobind Ji was a military leader, but he never wavered in his commitment to the spiritual teachings of Sikhism. He helped to compile the hymns that Guru Arjan Dev Ji started, and this resulted in the Guru Granth Sahib. This combination of martial and spiritual aspects became a hallmark of Sikh identity, highlighting the need of having both inner strength and the ability to overcome outside challenges.

The philosophy of Sikhism has been greatly impacted by the teachings of Guru Hargobind Ji. Subsequent Gurus were inspired by his vision of a warrior-saint who could protect the material and spiritual realms, strengthening the Sikh commitment to equality, justice, and self-defense. Guru Hargobind Ji’s profound influence on the dualistic nature of Sikh principles embodies the spirit of both Miri and Piri.

7. Guru Har Rai Ji (1630-1661)

Guru Har Rai Ji

The seventh great Sikh leader, Guru Har Rai Ji (1630-1661), played a significant role in the growth of the Sikh community during his lifetime. By skillfully combining spiritual profundity, compassion, and military tactics initiated by his predecessor, Guru Hargobind Ji, Guru Har Rai Ji profoundly altered Sikhism.

The grandson of Guru Hargobind Ji, Guru Har Rai Ji gained notoriety as a leader who had a gentle nature and a great love for the natural world. His birthday is January 16, 1630. During the conflicts of the day, he was one of the few who managed to combine military service with a deep respect for the natural world.

While stressing the healing qualities of Sikhism, Guru Har Rai Ji ensured that Sikhs were prepared for self-defense and carried on Guru Hargobind’s military strategies. In an effort to provide humanitarian aid and healthcare, he founded a hospital in Kiratpur Sahib that embodied the Sikh concept of seva, or selfless service.

Renowned for his fondness for flora and fauna, Guru Har Rai Ji laid out an exquisite garden at Kiratpur Sahib, showcasing his profound reverence for the natural world. This harmonious relationship with nature, which echoed Sikh beliefs about the divine presence permeating creation, further reinforced the significance of environmental stewardship.

In order to avoid direct confrontation with Mughal authorities and to maneuver through the political pressures of the day, Guru Har Rai Ji adopted a non-aggression strategy. Instead, he gave greater weight to comprehension and dialogue as means of resolving conflicts. His aptitude for diplomacy and dedication to advancing peace were exemplary of Sikh ideals.

Guru Har Rai Ji left behind a compassionate, environmentally conscious, and well-rounded leadership legacy after his death on October 6, 1661. His teachings placed a strong emphasis on the harmony of spiritual consciousness, military preparedness, and deep respect for nature. Sikh principles, which promote a holistic lifestyle that considers both the spiritual and material domains, are shaped by these teachings.

8. Guru Har Krishan Ji (1656-1664)

Guru Har Krishan Ji

Guru Har Krishan Ji, the eighth Guru of Sikhism, was born on July 7, 1656, and passed away on March 30, 1664. Despite his brief life, he had a profound influence on Sikh spirituality. Despite his youth, his unwavering devotion to God made him a global inspiration to Sikhs. At the tender age of five, Guru Har Krishan Ji—the son of Guru Har Rai Ji—became the Guru. In his short life, he showed extraordinary spiritual understanding and compassion, making him the youngest Guru in Sikh history.

Sikhs agreed with Guru Har Krishan Ji’s emphasis on devotion to God as a guiding principle. Despite his youth, he engaged in spiritual discussions and motivated followers to deepen their relationship with the Almighty. His teachings placed a strong emphasis on the importance of growing to love God and submitting to his will.

A poignant demonstration of Guru Har Krishan Ji’s spiritual depth occurred during the Delhi smallpox outbreak of 1664. Despite his youth, the Guru showed selflessness by providing comfort and medical care to those in need. His actions exemplified the Sikh values of compassion for all people, regardless of their circumstances, and selfless service (Seva).

Even in his early years, Guru Har Krishan Ji’s interactions with people revealed his spiritual wisdom and the divine grace he carried. He lived a brief but impactful life, laying the foundation for the spiritual teachings that would be developed by other Gurus.

Sadly, Guru Har Krishan Ji died in Delhi on March 30, 1664, at the age of eight, from illness. Despite his brief tenure as a Guru, Sikhism was profoundly impacted by his unwavering devotion and caring demeanor. Sikhs are constantly reminded by Guru Har Krishan Ji’s teachings of the value of unshakable faith and selfless service in their spiritual journey.

9. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji (1621-1675)

Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji

The ninth Guru of Sikhism, Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, is regarded as a man of bravery, selflessness, and steadfast support for religious liberty. His life unfolded during a turbulent period of religious intolerance, and his martyrdom continues to be a significant event in Sikh history. He was born on April 1, 1621. Tyag Mal, also known as Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, ascended to the Guruship following the death of his father, Guru Hargobind Ji, in 1665. He was unwavering in his resolve to defend everyone’s freedom to practice and adhere to any religion.

The Mughal Empire’s intolerance towards religion was a major factor in the circumstances that led to Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s martyrdom. He started a historic journey to defend the rights of the oppressed after seeing the forced conversion of Pandits and the persecution of Hindus in Kashmir.

When Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji arrived in Delhi, he bravely challenged Emperor Aurangzeb’s despotic government, adamantly refusing to convert to Islam in favor of religious freedom. His famous statement, “Why should I embrace Islam, just for the sake of a handful of flour?” sums up his steadfast commitment to the principles of conscience and religious freedom.

Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji and his friends sadly endured torturous detentions and brutal imprisonments. He persevered in the face of tremendous adversity. On November 11, 1675, Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was executed in Delhi as a martyr.

In Sikhism, his sacrifice is extremely significant because it stands for the defense of the fundamental right to practice one’s religion openly and without interference. The Sikh ideal of selfless service was embodied by Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, who gave his life to protect other people’s rights and welfare.

Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s teachings and selflessness have been a poignant reminder of the importance of resisting oppression and defending the values of justice and religious liberty throughout Sikh history. Generations of Sikhs have been motivated to continue the fight for everyone’s freedom to practice their religion by his legacy.

10. Guru Gobind Singh Ji (1666-1708)

Guru Gobind Singh Ji

Guru Gobind Singh Ji, the tenth Guru of Sikhism, stands as a revolutionary figure who forged the Khalsa Panth, instilling the Sikh community with a warrior-saint ethos. Born on December 22, 1666, his life was dedicated to the pursuit of justice and the preservation of the Sikh faith.

Facing challenges from the harsh Mughal government, Guru Gobind Singh Ji recognized the need for a strong and courageous community. In the monumental event of Vaisakhi in 1699, he initiated the first five Sikhs into the Khalsa, a distinct and disciplined group committed to upholding Sikh principles.

Through the sacred ceremony of Amrit Sanchar, Sikhs underwent a baptismal initiation, marking the formation of the Khalsa. Guru Gobind Singh Ji introduced the “Five Ks” — Kesh (uncut hair), Kara (steel bracelet), Kanga (wooden comb), Kachera (cotton undergarments), and Kirpan (ceremonial sword) — symbolizing virtues of bravery, self-control, and devotion to righteousness, while also serving as identifiers for Sikh baptisms.

Not only did Guru Gobind Singh Ji establish the Khalsa, but he also instilled Sikhs with a warrior-saint spirit. Emphasizing the interconnectedness of temporal and spiritual responsibilities, he empowered Sikhs to resist oppression and champion the cause of the oppressed. The Guru, both a writer and a warrior, penned spiritual exhortations and fought when necessary.

His epic poems, including “Chandi di Var” and “Jaap Sahib,” found in the Dasam Granth, encapsulate the literary contributions of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. These compositions reflect his profound spirituality, bravery, and dedication to justice.

Guru Gobind Singh Ji departed from this life on October 7, 1708. His deeds and teachings, centered on justice, equality, and an unwavering commitment to upholding the rights of all people, continue to inspire Sikhs worldwide. The legacy of Guru Gobind Singh Ji will endure, shaping Sikh identity and values for generations to come as a symbol of courage and perseverance.

Conclusion

In summary, the ten Gurus of Sikhism collectively forged the path of the religion, leaving behind a profound legacy of social transformation, spiritual enlightenment, and resilience against oppression. Each Guru played a pivotal role in shaping Sikh identity, from Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s establishment of the Khalsa to Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s emphasis on human unity. The teachings of justice, equality, and devotion propagated by these Gurus continue to inspire millions, forming the enduring foundation of Sikhism.

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